The majority of people upgrading OS X 10.7 and 10.8 servers to Mavericks have experienced a problem where Mac workstations also running Mavericks can’t connect to server shares. All valid usernames/passwords are rejected, yet curiously Macs running OS X 10.4-10.8 can connect to the Mavericks server just fine.

There are a number of use-at-your-own risk workarounds that have surfaced for this Maverick workstation to Mavericks server problem, but Apple has yet to address the issue, even though they released a Server 3.0.1 update on 11/12/13. See this Apple Discussion thread for more information:
https://discussions.apple.com/thread/5468766