One common OS X troubleshooting step is running a Live Verification on the boot volume. To do this, you launch Disk Utility, select the boot volume’s name along the left, click the “Verify Disk” button, and wait to hopefully receive the message “The volume appears to be OK”. If you don’t receive this message, it indicates that the directory on the boot volume needs to be repaired.
Lately, I’ve seen a wide variety of Macs running Mavericks that go through the entire Live Verification process, but never display “The volume appears to be OK” when complete. You can tell that the Live Verification process has finished because the “Verify Disk” button is available to be clicked again.
This appears to be a cosmetic bug with Maverick’s Disk Utility, and is more prone to happen on SSD or Fusion boot drives. I feel it’s safe to assume the boot volume is OK if no other errors are listed prior to the Live Verification completing, but if you want to be 100% sure you can the check /var/log/fsck_hfs.log file. This log file seems to include the concluding “The volume appears to be OK” message even though it’s missing in Disk Utility.